Kyphosis:an outward rounding of the spine creating a “humpback” spine. Some degree of rounding is normal and to be expected in the thoracic spine, however this curvature can become exaggerated very quickly due to different injuries or strength and flexibility imbalances. Pathologically, it’s commonly seen in older women suffering from osteoporosis. In athletes, the spine can be pulled into this slouched position due to tight or overly developed pectoralis, levator scapulae, and serratus anterior muscles which act to pull the scapulae (shoulder blades) forward. Degenerative joint disease (DJD), degenerated discs, and improper alignment following compression fractures can also cause thoracic kyphosis.


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